It is impossible to leave Africa without mentioning Egyptian horses and
the high-class desert Arabians,
bred for many years in the good climatic conditions of the El Zahraa and
Ein Shams studs.
For lack of a country to put the Zebra under,
I am providing the link here for now.
The Empire of Equus lists
the following breeds under Africa; I have left the chart as is for now
until I can sort it out better under modern countries.
Abyssinia: Dongala horse, Galla horse (Arab/Barb cross)
Algeria: Arabian, Barb, Dongala horse
Cameroons: Fullah horse, Lakka pony
Central Africa: Togo pony
Congo (Zaire): (no domestic horses, because of the tsetse fly)
Madagascar: Madagascar horse; horses from Abyssinia, Algeria, Arabia,
and Tarbes (Spain)
Morocco: Arabian, Barb, Dongala horse, Libyan Leopard horse, and
imported Breton, Percheron, and Boulonnaise draft horses
Nile Region (upper): Dar-Fur horse, Dongala horse, Kordofan horse
Senegal and Gambia: Bagazan or Kinabuta horse, Dongala horse, Arab-Barb
Somaliland: Galla horse, Somali horse
South Africa: African horse, Cape horse, Basuto pony
Southwest Africa: Native S.W. African horse; imported East Prussian,
Gidran, English Thoroughbred, and other British breeds
Sudan: Sudanese horse
Togoland (West Africa): Descendants of Barb horses; Togo pony
Tripolitania (Libya): Arabian, Barb, and Arab/Barb crosses
Tunisia: Arabian, Barb, Beradin horse, "Bou Chareb," English
Thoroughbred, mountain pony
Horses are valuable
in the Lebanon and Beirut, and many are part or true Thoroughbreds,
types, but there are "asil" horses too, as there are in Iraq.
Sometimes a horse shows all the Arabian
characteristics, and in fact traces back many years to an Iraqi
stallion, Ahsuri--a Thoroughbred that was disqualified in Beirut as a
non-Arabian, before being taken to Iraq and crossed with pure Arab mares.
The strong, often dun-colored ponies of Tibet are descendants of
ponies. Wealthy Tibetans,
including the Dalai Lhama, used to own small studs--which are almost
certainly dispersed by now.
In addition to much that I have already placed under the various
countries, The Empire of Equus lists the following:
Afghanistan as the home of the Afghan horse, Kabul horse, and Kandahar
horse; Indochina as the home of Cambodian, Burmese, South-Annam, Tonking
and other native horses, as well as various imported breeds; Iraq as the
home of the Karabac horse (related to the Karabakh or different?); the
Philippines as the home of the Sulu horse (from Sumatra) and the
Philippine pony (various types); and Syria as the home of the Anaze
Horses were unknown
on this continent until introduced by the first explorers from Spain or
Holland in the 16th century. With the arrival of the British convict
settlements and the opening up of the land to cattle and sheep, horses
became a necessity.
Today the units of mounted police, still found in most states, have
shifted from their omnifarious, indispensable work in the outback, to
traffic and crowd control in the cities. Instead of the heavy,
weight-carrying animals of the trooper police, they ride quality horses,
well-suited to public exhibitions of horsemanship and their many
Australians enthusiastically support all forms of racing, from the
"picnic races" of the outback to the celebrated Melbourne Cup, taking place each
autumn. There are a growing number of first-class Thoroughbred
studs, many blood animals
being used not only for racing but for mustering on sheep or cattle
stations, and even as pony club mounts. Numerous Arabian
horses are bred, as well as
Quarter horses were first imported in 1954. In 1967, Mr. Lougher set
out from America with a shipment of thirty, to found another Australian
stud. Because of hold-ups due to swamp fever regulations, his voyage
eventually took 13 months and hit the world headlines. These horses
are increasingly popular as stockhorses.
The Empire of Equus lists the following breeds under Australia:
Cross-bred Arabian, Indian, and Persian horses; English Thoroughbred;
Timor pony; and "Waler" (an Anglo-Indian horse bred in New South Wales
and exported to India for cavalry service).
I don't really know
where the Gypsy
Vanner originated, but I think it was somewhere in Europe so I'm putting the
link here for now. Also, until I get a page for Estonia, I
will just mention here that it is or was apparently the home to such
breeds as the Unveredeltes farm horse, the Torgelscher strain, the
Smudish horse, and the Klepper, as well as crosses between farm horses
and the Ardennais draft. I must also mention that Danish and
Friesian drafts and East Prussian (Trakehner) horses can be found in
Latvia; the Zemaitukas pony and the Pange horse are bred in Lithuania;
and Rumania (Romania) is the home of the Bulgarian or South-Bessarabian
horse, the German-Bessarabian horse, the Huzulen horse, the Rumanian
farm horse (4 strains), the Dobrutscha horse, a mountain horse, the
Moldavian horse, the Transylvanian horse ("Seven cities" and Jalomitz
strains), and numerous imported breeds.
The Zemaitukas is an ancient breed of large ponies or small horses of
Lithuania, typically dun in color with light mane and tail and a dark
mid-dorsal stripe. Mouse-grey and bay colors also occur.
Physically the Zemaitukas is a well-documented breed. The average
height is 56.6 inches for stallions and 55 inches for mares; the average
weight, 893 pounds for stallions and 872 pounds for mares. Average
birth weights are 84 pounds for male foals and 82 pounds for females.
Horses like the Mustang,
and the Paint are often put in the catch-all category of "Indian
ponies." Their story is a fascinating chapter in the history of
the horse in America. It begins with the arrival in the New World of
the Spanish explorers. The horses they brought with them were
perhaps the finest of their time and the first to walk the continent since
Equus, the ancestor of all horses, disappeared from it.
Over the centuries breeders on the Iberian peninsula had produced
excellent results from available strains. As early as the fifth
century B.C., an important breed called the Vilana had been developed by
crossing native stock with the cold-blooded Northern horses of Celt
invaders. In the third century BC, the Vilanas were bred to
Eastern stallions brought by the army of Carthage on its roundabout way to
Rome. A horse of extraordinary speed and substance resulted.
Many centuries later, when the Moors conquered Spain, they brought their
culture and their splendid desert horses with them. With this
infusion of Eastern blood, the Spanish horses moved another step closer to
perfection. The mounts of the Spanish conquistadors and explorers
were mostly Andalusian-bred
and strong in the blood of the Barbary
(Moroccan) horse. Thus
the type of horse that debarked on the shores of the New World was in
general very fine, the result of centuries of intelligent breeding.
These were the horses--whether strayed, stolen, or bartered--that came
into the possession of the American Indians. The "Indian
pony," product of indiscriminate mating and the harsh plains
environment, is their direct descendant.
The Indians took little time to get over their initial awe of the
horse. During the 17th century many of the Southwestern tribes built
up sizable herds and their braves learned to ride with fantastic
skill. The horse provided greater range for tribal bands; it allowed
hunters to kill single buffalo instead of stampeding herds into pit traps;
and it made the Indian brave armed with bow and arrow fearsome in war.
The Cayuse tribe also bred good horses. Environment was a factor,
since both the Cayuse and the Nez Perce tribes lived in a mountainous
region where the animals had good forage. On the Plains, the Indian
ponies tended to be, as the artist George Catlin noted of the Comanche
herd, "generally small, of the wild breed, tough and
serviceable." Unlike the Cayuse and Nez Perce tribes, which
selected both mares and stallions and gelded unsuitable males, the Plains
tribes usually allowed their horses to mate freely.
Horsemen of today are trying to classify and improve the distinct types of
Western horses by crossing with breeds of highly uniform and desirable
characteristics, particularly the Thoroughbred
For the present it is the coloration of the Appaloosa,
and the Palomino
them. Conformation within each breed is still highly variable, but
in time standards will be established.
The conquistadors and other pioneers brought horses and a common quality of fine
horsemanship which was developed even further by the cattle riders of
early Spanish colonial days. Because these first Latin American
cattle riders were immeasurably tough and superlative horsemen who could
ride anything, they were exceptionally fitted for conquering new
territory, establishing cattle ranches and providing ready-made,
first-class irregular cavalry.
South America is horse country, although breeding is difficult in a few
regions because of disease. Peru is also ideal country for raising
fine types, many of which spread into the other republics.
Basically, the majority of South American horses are variations of the Criollo.
Terrain and climate produce their own changes.
In South America, Belgian
horses, as well as Percherons,
have been imported from time to time, although heavy horses do not stand
up well to constant heat and flies, and are peculiarly susceptible to
The Venezuelan Llaneros ride a lighter, taller type of Criollo
limbs, which is named after them--the Llanero, or Prairie Horse.
The Chilean type, working in the mountains and usually under great
hardship, was noted more for strength than beauty, but has been much
improved by careful breeding in the last twenty years or so. It is
hoped they retain their sensible ability to grow profuse manes and tails
as protection against the flies.
The Brazilian Crioulo is little different from its cousin in Peru, the
Criollo or Costeno and the Marochuco, of more angular conformation, found
in the mountain regions. Both these working horses are descended
from those brought to Brazil by Pizarro in 1532.
South America is indeed a land of horses. In Brazil they say,
first made man. He thought better of it and made woman. When
He got time He made the horse, which has the courage and spirit of man and
the grace and beauty of woman."
The Empire of Equus lists the
following breeds found in South America: Criollo, Mestizo (half-bred),
Anglo-Argentine cross-breds, Chilian pony, Peruvian Paso, Morochuco
(curly-coated pony), Bagual (feral) horse, and numerous imported breeds
including the Arab, Anglo-Normand, Polo pony, Thoroughbred, Percheron,
Clydesdale, Shire, Suffolk, Boulonnais, Hunter, Hackney, Standardbred,
Belgian, Norman, Norfolk, Shetland pony, Yorkshire, Ardennais, Orloff
trotter, Welsh pony, Breton, Oldenburg, Holstein, and others.
The Peruvian Paso is a riding horse bred in Peru since the early 1500s,
but not imported in numbers into the United States until 1960.